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Einstein and the Quantum by A. Douglas Stone

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CHAPTER 25

QUANTUM DICE

Just under two years before Einstein’s famous rejection of the new quantum mechanics with the memorable phrase “I … am convinced that [God] is not playing at dice,” Einstein himself, inspired by Bose, changed the laws governing the playing of dice. Bose had unwittingly introduced a new method of counting the states of a physical system in order to derive the Planck law from direct consideration of a gas of light quanta, treated as particles, not waves. It was Einstein who would now explain and extend this new representation of the microscopic world to resolve long-standing paradoxes in gas theory and to reveal dramatic and previously undreamed-of behavior of atomic gases at low temperature.

Einstein had become renowned ...

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